Intermittent fasting (or IF) continues to stir up conversation in our society today. As with any diet or style of eating, one needs keep in mind that not everything is black and white. There are many things that contribute to if they are eating “healthy” or not, and if it is what works best for someone.

Fasting isn’t anything new. People of faith and different religions have fasted for centuries. However, intermittent fasting (IF) took off as a weight-loss craze at the end of 2012. There are several styles of IF with different fasting periods or windows. You might wonder, which one is best? For a lot of people, which one is ‘best’ is dependent on their lifestyle and what works best for them.

Fasting works because the total amount of food consumed typically decreases throughout the course of a week. This results in negative net calorie, which should lead to weight loss for most people. People tend to enjoy this style of dieting because it doesn’t leave them feeling hungry on the days they can eat (compared to a typical restricted calorie diet). Fasting also gained popularity because it took the stress out of what they should or shouldn’t eat.

The important part to IF is to not overeat during your “eating window” or your “eating days” and recognize you cannot eat whatever you want. Intermittent Fasting typically does allow all food (“good” or “bad”). However, just because some people can lose weight eating all the junk food while fasting, doesn’t make it healthy.  It is important to recognize that people can’t escape quality food (or lack thereof) and how it is going to affect health. Getting a balanced diet of carbohydrates, fiber, fats and proteins is still important even if you are cutting out 1-2 days per week of eating. This ensures your body is still getting all the nutrition that it needs.

So what does the research show and is this for you?

Although there is evidence that shows Intermittent Fasting can lead to weight loss and improved risk factors of chronic disease, doesn’t mean it is for everyone. There are still many unknowns when it comes to IF long-term. Many individuals who have medical conditions should not fast without supervision of a doctor, especially those on medication.

Here are a couple of questions I would ask an individual who is interested in Intermittent Fasting are:

  • Have you tried it? If yes, for how long?
  • Have you tried anything else?
  • What did you eat on the days you could eat?
  • Did you like it?
  • Were you successful?

Ultimately, for some people, it works great and they love it and feel great while doing it. However, for a lot of others it leads to overeating, increased irritability and frustration. If you decide to try it (assuming no medical conditions), I would just encourage that you to still eat a well balanced diet on your eating days.

If you have any questions, please feel free to email us at

Walking has all sorts of health benefits among them the ability to help lower your blood pressure and strengthen your heart. Many people at risk for stroke and heart disease are overweight, unhealthy and have a hard time exercising. Thankfully walking is an easy, low-impact workout that almost anyone can do.

Start where you’re at. Just put on your shoes and head out there. If all you can do is walk for five to ten minutes, start there. It’s a great start and that’s a lot more exercise than you’ve been getting. Stick with it for a week and then see if you can make it for 15 minutes.

If you can go for 30-minute walk, start there. Pick up the pace, walk briskly and after a week or two, try to go for 45 minute walks. Or break up your walking workout into 3 shorter sessions interspersed throughout your day.

If you have any health conditions and in particular, if you’re suffering from high blood pressure and are at risk for heart disease, discuss your walking plans with your doctor. The two of you can come up with a plan that’s appropriate and safe for you.

Getting out and walking will help you on several different levels. The act of walking itself, particularly if you can go for a walk out in a pretty park is very relaxing and will lower your blood pressure soon after the walk. That’s a terrific benefit of walking and something that will help you feel better right away. But the benefits don’t stop there.

The regular exercise will strengthen your heart. Remember your heart is a muscle and going for a brisk walk works out more than your leg muscles. As you work out your heart, it gets stronger and better at pumping blood through your body. And as you strengthen your muscles and your body overall, you are likely losing body fat. That’s good news for your blood pressure long term. All it takes is heading out there for a short little walk each day. As you get stronger those walks will get longer and you may even give swimming or riding your bike a try.

A healthy diet, regular exercise, and losing weight are some of the most effective ways to reduce hypertension regularly. Add to that the fact that walking helps you destress and it’s no wonder that walking regularly has such beneficial effects on your health. Ready to get started? Put on your shoes and go for that first walk.

We were designed to walk for miles and miles to hunt and gather our food. Yet, in modern society, we spend most of our time sitting down.  That is not good for our bodies leading to a host of health problems. This is probably one of the most important reasons to make an effort to move around and go for a walk each day. Of course, that’s easier said than done. Most of us sit for our work, we eat sitting down, and to be honest all we want to do when we come home from work is plop down on the couch for a Netflix marathon until bedtime.

In other words, getting and staying in the habit of going for a walk each day can be a bit of a challenge. But that’s exactly what we need to do. We need to get in the habit of going for that walk just like we’re in the habit of brushing our teeth twice a day or taking out the trash on Tuesdays. Once it’s a well-ingrained habit, it won’t be as much of a challenge to make sure we go for a walk each day.

A great place to start is to find a walking route you enjoy. It helps to make it as easy as possible. Your favorite walk may offer beautiful vistas, but if it’s a 30-minute drive there and back, you’ll be less likely to do it every single day. Instead, save that walk for the weekends and come up with something convenient and pleasant for your everyday walking routine. If you can, find a route in your own neighborhood so you can leave right from your front door. Just lace up your shoes and start walking.

Taking the same route every day helps form that habit. It’s also encouraging to notice that you can walk the same loop faster or with less effort over time. It proves that you’re making a difference and are getting stronger and increasingly fitter.

Listening to your favorite music, podcast, or audiobooks is also helpful. It will make the time go by faster and give you something else to look forward to. You can even use your favorite media as a way to bribe yourself to go for your daily walk. Let’s say you have a couple of podcasts you enjoy. Save them for your walks and only let yourself listen to them while you’re walking. It’s a great incentive to get out there even on days when you’re not feeling it.

Last but not least consider walking with other people. Find a walking group in your area, or talk a friend or neighbor into becoming your walking buddy. Not only is it more fun to walk when you have someone to talk to, it also has some built-in accountability. It’s much easier to skip a walking workout when you know that other people are waiting for you and relying on you to join them.

Give these tips a try and see if they help you make walking a daily habit and an integral part of your health, your fitness, and your life.

There are a lot of good reasons to go for a walk. It’s fun, it’s relaxing, and most important it’s good for your health. But what exactly are the health benefits of walking? I hope this article convinces you that heading out for a walk each day is a great idea and that it motivates you to stick to your walking schedule until you start to see results.

Walking Gets You Outside In The Fresh Air and Sunshine

No matter how fast or slow you walk, walking gets you outside and in the fresh air. This alone will make you feel better as your body absorbs the oxygen and sunshine. Both are important for your health and well-being.

You will find the air quality outside, particularly if you go for a walk on the beach or in a park, will be much better than the air inside your house. Of course, the sunshine outside will help your body product all the Vitamin D it needs.

Walking Can Help You Get To And Maintain A Healthy Weight

Walking particularly at a quick pace and doing it regularly can help you get to and then maintain a healthy weight. Yes, you still need to watch what you eat and aim for a healthy diet, but walking can be another tool to help you drop those extra pounds.

The nice thing about walking when you’re overweight is that you burn a lot of calories, even on short and slow walks, simply because you’re carrying so much weight around with you. As you start to lose the weight, your overall strength and endurance increases, allowing you to walk longer, further, and faster.

Walking Strengthens Your Bones and Muscles

Even though walking is a low impact form of exercise it helps to strengthen and tone your body. If you’re just starting out, it is all you need to start to get into better shape. As you get more fit, consider adding weight lifting exercises in addition to your daily walks to continue to get stronger and help develop strong muscles and bones.

Walking Will Boost Your Mood and Fight Depression

Last but not least, the exercise of walking releases endorphins that will help lift your mood and can even reduce depression. Give it a try. The next time you’re feeling tired or are in a bad mood, lace up your sneakers and go for a brisk walk. It works like a charm.

If you haven’t exercised in a while, or are looking for something easy you can do every single day give walking a try. It’s the perfect low impact way to exercise. It’s easy to do, you don’t need any special equipment and you can start at the fitness level you’re at.

If you’re not in the best of shape, start by going for a 10 or 15-minute walk around the neighborhood and work your way up from there. If you’re already in great shape, walking can still provide an effective workout. Walk fast and incorporate some hills and even stairs.

But, let’s not get ahead of ourselves here. If you’re like most of us, make sure that you ease into your walking routine!  Find a pair of comfortable shoes, put them on and go for a stroll through your neighborhood. You could also find a local park with a nice path you can walk on. If the weather doesn’t permit walking outside, head to your local mall and walk or hop on a treadmill.

You can even walk in place at home in front of your TV. Here’s a simple little idea to get you moving more. As you’re sitting on the couch at night watching TV, get up during commercial breaks and march in place until your favorite TV show comes back on. If you’re using a service like Netflix, make yourself walk in place for 10 minutes in between episodes. Or turn on the TV and challenge yourself to march in place during the entire show. Time will fly while you’re having fun watching TV and moving.

Speaking of having fun, going for a walk outside can be a lot of fun too. Mix up your route and walk in different areas of town, or visit different parks. Invite a friend to come along with you to walk. It’s always nice to have someone to talk to and having a walking buddy keeps you accountable. Last but not least, grab your phone and listen to music or audiobooks as you walk to make the time go by faster.

The main thing is that you get out there, move around, and get some exercise in a way that’s gentle on your joints, your heart, and the rest of your body and that’s what walking will do for you. Just give it a try and see if you don’t start to feel better, happier, and stronger after a few weeks of regular walks.

Mrcros, short for macronutrients, are elements of food that are required for normal growth and development of an organisms. Most of us know them better as fat, protein and carbohydrates.

Many of us have the idea that calories in verse calories out is the most important part of maintaining our weight and our health. However, the more we are learning about the food we consume in today fast paced world, the more we are seeing that quality and what we eat is also important.

Things that will be covered in this blog:

  • Different macros do different things for you
  • Not all weight loss is treated equally
  • Macros and where to start

1. Different Macros do different things for us

Have you ever paid attention to how you feel during your morning and related it back to the breakfast you’ve eaten? Maybe you thought you were making a healthy choice by grabbing a granola bar on your way out the door instead of picking up a doughnut at the coffee shop you stop at every morning. Although, yes, a granola bar is better than a doughnut, it still may have left you feeling hungry and without any energy by the time your morning break rolled around. This is because your breakfast was most likely made up of all simple carbohydrates.

Simple carbohydrates digest very quickly and enter our bloodstream right away. You may have heard of the term Glycemic Index before, which is the classification of just how fast that food enters your bloodstream. The faster it enters, the higher the glycemic index, the higher your blood sugar gets and the more likely you are to crash and feel hungry and without energy at that morning break.

On the other side of the equation, if you eat a breakfast high in protein such as eggs or Greek Yogurt and/or high in fiber (complex carbohydrates), this will slow down your digestion, leaving you full and with energy longer.

Carbohydrates: One thing I think many people today misunderstand is carbohydrates. With trending diets that are low or no carbohydrates, people have started to believe that carbohydrates = weight gain. This isn’t true. Carbohydrates are a main source of our energy and if you live an inactive lifestyle, you do not need to consume a large amount of energy. However, going on a low carbohydrate diet puts you at risk of missing out on many healthy and important foods in your diet, such as fruits, vegetables and legumes. These foods not only provide you with your dietary fiber needs, they also provide a huge amount of the micronutrients that you need.

Protein is a macronutrient that is very important in someone’s diet, especially when they are hypocaloric (or below their calorie needs) as it helps individuals maintain their muscle mass (more on this in #2). It also has a higher thermic effect, which means it takes more energy to digest.

Fat seems to get less attention than the first two but is very important in a diet. Fat plays a key role in allowing absorption of nutrients, providing a slow constant level of energy to the body and can help slow down digestion. The key is looking for healthy fats and avoiding saturated fats found in a lot of our fatty meats and processed foods.

2. Not all weight loss is the same

I’ve coached many individuals who are focused on the number on the scale. They get discouraged by little weight loss despite seeing their belt go down three notches or losing inches around their body.  I’ve also seen individuals lose weight, but when taking a closer look at their muscle mass verse body fat, they lost most of their weight in muscle.

You may be wondering, what your point?

  • Not all weight loss is good and sometimes, maintaining your weight while gaining muscle and losing fat can be more beneficial than losing weight if it is muscle.
  • Think of your muscle as a furnace for burning a majority of the calories that you eat (your metabolism). If you cut back on calories and lose 10 lbs of muscle and then go back to eating like you did before, your “furnace” isn’t burning as much as it used to (slowed metabolism). This is what leads to people’s rebound weight gain and sometimes gaining even more than where they started at.
  • Compared to an individual who lost fat and either maintains or gains muscle, their furnace is either burning the same or more calories than it used to (increased metabolism). A lot of times when this is the case, the individual doesn’t see as much weight change, but rather more inches lost. This individual is also more likely to keep their weight off because their metabolism hasn’t decreased.

You may wonder, can I do this with diet alone or do I need exercise?

Diet alone is not going to build more muscle, that is why exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. However, diet and your “macros” can help preserve the muscle mass that you do have.  If you are trying to maintain your existing muscles while losing fat, increasing your protein is important. A high protein diet can help preserve muscle mass. Also, making sure you are not going on to low of calorie intake is important, because your body will breakdown muscle tissue for energy if needed. This is why slow weight loss is important and one of the reasons why people who lose weight slowly are more likely to keep it off (because fast weight loss, you’re going to lose some muscle).

3.  Macros and where to start

Figuring out your macro targets is a very individualized process. There are a lot of things that can affect it, included but not limited to: activity level, end goal, calorie needs and history of past dieting, medication and other health risk factors. It is always important to consult a professional on your needs before determining what is best for you.

However here are some general guidelines to get you started:

Start with figuring out your resting calorie needs (Basal Metabolic Rate). If you can do this through Basal Metabolic Testing or via your body fat percentage/muscle mass, that will be the most accurate number for you because it considers your muscle mass or “furnace” that I mentioned earlier. If you don’t have access to that testing, here is an equation you can use:

Mifflin-St. Jeor equation:

  • Men: calories/day = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) + 5
  • Women: calories/day = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) – 161

Then, multiply your result by an activity factor — a number that represents different levels of activity to get your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) (1):

Sedentary: x 1.2 (limited exercise)

Lightly active: x 1.375 (light exercise less than three days per week)

Moderately active: x 1.55 (moderate exercise most days of the week)

Very active: x 1.725 (hard exercise every day)

Extra active: x 1.9 (strenuous exercise two or more times per day)

Once you know your calorie goal, it’s time to set a macro goal. Again, depending on your individual goals, your amounts should fall within these ranges (2):

Carbs: 45–65% of total calories

Fats: 20–35% of total calories

Proteins: 10–35% of total calories

If you are not familiar with what foods have what macronutrients in them, I would encourage you to start by tracking your nutrients by hand to learn what types of food you personally need to limit or eat more of. If you have a good grasp on what foods contain specific macronutrients, I’d encourage you to find an app such as MyFitnessPal, Lose It!, or My Marcos + to log a few days and see where you are at and adjust your food intake and goals from there.

Things to know when counting your Macros:

  • Carbohydrates contain 4 calories per grams
  • Proteins contain 4 calories per gram.
  • Fats contain 9 calories per gram.
  • Calories per specific macro group =  (Marco % goal (divide by 100)) x (Total Calories (TDEE, calculated above))
  • Grams per specific Marco group = (Calories just calculated) / (calories per gram of specific Marco)
  • Protein example in a 2,000 calories diet (TDEE):
    • 30% protein (.3) x 2000 = 600 calories in carbs/day
    • Total grams of protein allowed per day = 600/4 = 150 grams




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Anxiety is basically worry that never stops. Its symptoms can be severe or mild, and include emotional, physical, and/or psychological manifestations. Here are some of the symptoms and possible causes of anxiety.

Symptoms and Manifestations

  • Abdominal Problems: Anxiety can cause pain in your abdomen. Anxiety can also cause nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. Have you ever had “butterflies in your stomach”? This refers to the fluttery feeling you get in your middle when you’re nervous. This is caused by the “flight or fight” response, during which the body decreases circulation to non-vital body processes such as digestion. This allows your body to go into full alert, able to run or fight as the case may be. When this is prolonged, however, the digestive organs become worn out and, without the return of normal circulation, begin to malfunction.
  • Muscle Tension: This can cause pain throughout the body, the most frightening being the chest tightness in a “panic attack.” (Panic attacks are also symptoms of anxiety.) The muscle spasms can feel like you’re choking or like a heart attack, increasing feelings of fear and anxiety.
  • Phobias: Phobias are irrational fears of harmless or specific things. Fear of heights, spiders, or flying in airplanes are some of the more common phobias.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): People with OCD feel the need to enact some sort of ritual to alleviate anxious feelings. Probably the most well-known example is obsessive hand-washing, but OCD can also involve other ritualistic behavior, such as checking all the doors and windows multiple times to see that they are locked, even when you just locked them.
  • Headaches: Probably a result of muscle tension or chemical imbalance in the brain, headaches often are part of anxiety.
  • Heart Palpitations: This is when the heart seems to flutter or beat rapidly and irregularly. Like the butterflies in the stomach, heart palpitations are part of the fight or flight response, only in the case of anxiety it’s chronic.
  • Restlessness/Insomnia: People with anxiety often have trouble relaxing in general and sleeping in particular.

Causes of Anxiety

  • Genetics: There is evidence to suggest that the tendency to develop anxiety can be inherited. This genetic tendency may need an environmental trigger of some sort to develop actual anxiety symptoms.
  • Traumatic Event(s): Veterans of wars, survivors of rape and/or sexual abuse, and other victims of traumatic experience can suffer from anxiety. It’s as though the brain can not “move on” from the event, creating patterns of anxious thoughts and physical symptoms.
  • Brain Chemicals: Those who suffer from anxiety tend to have abnormal levels of neurotransmitters, which means their brains have trouble transmitting information on a cellular level.

If you or someone you know is struggle with anxiety, reach out to a counselor or medical provider for help.

It’s the everyday stress that can really get you down. Everyday stress can become chronic, and dealing with stress in a healthy way is important. Here are some tips of relieving everyday stress.

1. Take an art class – Art therapy has been shown to help with stress relief. Being able to channel the internal emotions into an art medium can be very therapeutic.

2. Prayer, guided meditation and imagery – Experts say that 10 to 20 minutes of prayer or meditation each day can help reduce stress. Guided imagery also may be helpful, and can be included with prayer or meditation. You can find websites with stress-relieving images to click on, and there are other sources for guided imagery online and at your library. You may also choose to see a professional who can guide you through the imagery or meditation.

3. Go easy on yourself – Don’t engage in self-criticism. Repeat your mantra; say your prayers, meditation, or whatever you need to do to silence the “you’re not good enough” voice.

4. Learn to take a time out – When you are stressed, you may be more prone to angry outbursts. Learn to take a moment for a time out before responding to something that angered you.

5. Be unavailable – Sometimes it can be very stressful to feel like you always have to be there for others. At some point, it’s important to turn off your telephone(s) and close your email, and just be there for yourself. You can even choose a regular time to do this and inform your friends and family so they won’t be offended when you don’t answer your phone or email.

6. Breathe deeply – Often a component of meditation, learning to take slow, deep breaths may help relieve stress in and of itself. Deep breathing may help remove toxins and relax muscles. It also is said to calm the mind.

7. Don’t set the stage – Without meaning to, you might be setting the stage for everyday stresses. For example, if you don’t maintain your car, it may break down all of a sudden, making for a very stressful time. The same can be true of not taking care of your nutritional needs or otherwise neglecting your health. Getting sick can really add to stress, especially trying to make up for the time lost after you get better.

8. Keep a healthy perspective – Sometimes, you can get overwhelmed with stress when everything seems vitally important and must be done right now. Try to keep a healthy perspective on things, reminding yourself that a situation, decision, or “moment” may not really matter ten years from now.

Practice one of these each week for eight weeks and see which one helps you the most!

Many jobs require that employees be “team players.” You may hear that so often that it becomes meaningless. But it isn’t – being a team player is a fairly broad term, and it can include an important attribute that employers appreciate: leadership.

Being a leader in the workplace does not necessarily mean being a boss, manager, supervisor, or other “official” position, although it can mean that. Being a leader in the workplace can also mean setting a good example for others and/or heading up office programs and projects.

Here are some tips and ideas on how to be a leader in the workplace.

Be Confident

There’s a saying that can serve you well in the workplace: “Never let them see you sweat.” Of course, no one is perfect; but appearing confident inspires others to trust you and take your advice. One way to ensure that you appear self-assured is not to talk too much about your fears and concerns. Talk to friends outside of the workplace about your uncertainties.

See the Good in Others

Being able to see the good traits in others is a useful leadership trait in the workplace. If you need to put certain people in charge of certain tasks, it pays to know who will do well with what task. You also may see potential in a co-worker and “stretch” him or her by requesting a task that might be a bit challenging. This improves the overall skill set of the workforce, and helps build self-esteem in your co-workers.

Don’t Be Afraid to Delegate

There’s a difference between being a people person and being a people pleaser. Being a people person means you have a genuine love for people, but you’re not afraid to ask people to do things. Being a leader doesn’t mean just doing everything yourself; it means you are comfortable giving up some control and delegating tasks to others.

Appreciate Co-Workers

No one wants to work for or with someone who doesn’t appreciate them. If you let everyone know you appreciate what they’ve done and how they’ve given their time and talents, it can go a long way. It’s always good to remember that there would be no leaders if there weren’t any followers. People who are appreciated may be more likely to follow your lead next time.

Problem Solving

If you step up with ideas on how to solve dilemmas, problems, and so forth, and have resourceful ideas about how to accomplish something, then speak up. Employers value the ability to think through a problem and find a creative solution. This is a valuable leadership quality.

Everyone has conscious or subconscious ideas that can become limiting beliefs that stop us from achieving our goals if we let them. Sometimes these beliefs are instilled in us in childhood and sometimes we create them ourselves. An example of a limiting belief that can get in your way of success is how you see yourself with money.

If you believe you will always struggle and always be poor, chances are you’ll set yourself up for failure. Your limiting belief that you’re poor and that you always will be poor becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. The same can be said about anything negative in your life that limits you – whether it’s career, education, or personal such as being healthy and of normal weight. If you see yourself a certain way, it can be hard to change that view and let go of that limiting belief.

There are eight telling phrases that point to a limiting belief:

1. “It’s hopeless” – Anytime you use the word “never” is a clue that you’re focusing on a limiting belief. For example: “I’ll never have any money because you need money to make money.”

2. “I’m helpless” – When most people feel uneducated or helpless, they blame their circumstances instead of working to change them. “I can’t manage my money because I don’t know how” sounds insightful, but the part that’s missing is the feeling of helplessness when all you need to do is take a personal finance course or buy, read and practice the lessons in “Personal Finances for Dummies”.

3. “It’s useless” – The idea that nothing you do will make a difference is that you believe that any action you take won’t make a difference. “It doesn’t matter if I work out an hour a day, I won’t lose weight anyway.” How do you know? Have you tried to do anything for longer than a couple weeks?

4. “It’s the universe” – Sometimes a limiting belief has to do with the idea that outside forces that you can’t control are at work keeping you down. You can’t find a job or get clients because the economy sucks, where you live is depressed, you don’t have the right clothing and so forth, but you do nothing in your power to change it because it’s destiny. “Everything happens for a reason” type of thinking can be very limiting and make you feel powerless.

5. “I’m worthless” – The idea that you’re not smart enough or good enough to do what you really want can be a very strong limiting belief system and seems to affect women more than men. You feel you’re not pretty enough, smart enough, or good enough to have something, so you don’t take the steps to achieve it, because you don’t feel that you deserve it.

6. “It’s genetic” – While there are certainly some instances where genetics play a huge role in a person’s life, the truth is that almost everything that is genetic can be fixed with the right mindset, training, exercise, and outlook. You’re not stuck with your genetics, but if you think you are, you may not try any of the things to pull yourself out of the rut you’re stuck in.

7. “I’ll fail” – The truth is the fear of failure is something most people have as a limiting belief. “I’m a bad public speaker so if I do it, I’ll be judged, and I’ll fail anyway so why try” is a common refrain. But, how can you set that belief in stone if you’ve not tried?

8. “I’m different” – The limiting belief about being different is that different is necessarily bad. You don’t want to be who you are because you’re different and you’ll be looked at as different by other people. You’re afraid to be who you are, and because of that you don’t even know who you are, and you’re too scared to find out due to fear of rejection and ending up alone.

If you ever hear any of these phrases go through your head, try to disconnect from them, and turn them around to “why not me” instead of “why me.” Always ask “why not me” because the truth is, you’re not feeling anything different from anyone else who has made goals and achieved them. The difference is in the doing, not the intelligence or talent.